Updated: Aug 9, 2021
DEFINITION : Civil engineers conceive, design, build, supervise, operate, construct and maintain infrastructure projects and systems in the public and private sector, including roads, buildings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and systems for water supply and sewage treatment.
The Civil Department Literally "Breaks Ground" for new projects. Often after celebrating with a (small) "Ground Breaking ceremony" The first shovels go into the ground.
Even before this happens a lot of work has already been done.
From local authorities need to be requested and granted. Projects can be seriously delayed if local people object against the build. Think of underground gas storage or Windmills.
In certain Area's the soil has been checked for possible contamination. Soil can be contaminated for years and years but as soon someone wants to start building on it, it needs to be checked, and if polluted, the contaminated soil has to be removed, cleaned and renewed. This is a costly and painstaking process but obviously neccessairy.
Even a Bomb search might be needed or mandetory in area's which were under fire during WW2. If possible, it is removed. If that is not possible it will be detonated on the spot, taking the necessary precautions. Still, nowadays in The Netherlands and Germany, people get hurt by unexpectedly digging up bombs during construction works.
Permits can be refused by authorities or under public pressure (Greenpeace) if the area is used as a living or breeding area for local wildlife. A former project I was on had a delay of over half a year because of this.
Area's were we are building or pass through can be examined for Archeological finds. If anything is found during excavations the finds need to be reported and archeologists come in to examine further... As one can imagine from the pictures below this can cause a serious delay..